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Module 8 Lesson 3
Hello, everybody! Fashion is changing sooo quickly; once you've bought something-it is out already. Do you know how fashion trends begin and what can inspire the famous designers? Do you see the difference between a hoodie and a sweatshirt? What are must haves in your wardrobe and whom would you call a fashion icon of our time? Let's get down to business…
1. Vocabulary

1.1 Let's study the basic vocabulary of the lesson. Read the explanations and accomplish the test below.
FASHION VOCABULARY:
TALK ABOUT FASHION IN ENGLISH
Torso

There are two kinds of t-shirt, which are casual, short sleeved tops. A round neck t shirt has a round neck hole (not really so confusing, this English) and a Polo shirt is slightly more formal, with a collar. A shirt is a long-sleeved garment (although, confusingly, there are short sleeved types), often made of cotton, with buttons up the front. A blouse is a shirt usually worn by women, with a more fitted styles and a smaller collar.

A jumper is the woollen or cotton extra layer that is worn over the shirt, handy for British winters… and Springs, Autumns and, sadly, often summer. It is also known as a jersey or pullover. A jumper with buttons which opens up fully is known as a cardigan, or cardy for short. A sleeveless jumper is called a tank top.

Less formal tops include sweat shirts, a cotton casual pullover, often with a picture or logo on it. A hoodie is like a sweat shirt, but includes a hood. Outer garments for outdoor wear are called coats. But there are many varieties of these: bomber jackets (short coats), golf coats, rain coats, overcoats (heavy, warm and formal coats), Mackintoshes and waterproofs -carried in case of wet weather — are other common types of coat.

A jacket is a short, fairly smart indoor coat, often worn with a suit or for work or business. It contains a handy amount of pockets for storage.

Jewellery wise, a bracelet is worn on the wrist. More casual, and often supporting a good cause, is a wristband. A bangle is a wide bracelet, often of ethnic styling. Cufflinks are like removable buttons sometimes worn with formal shirts.


Bottom Half

Trousers are worn to cover the entire bottom half of the body. They might be called jeans (usually made from denim), chinos (smart casual cotton trousers), drain pipes (tight fitting trousers with narrow legs sometimes known as skinny jeans.). Shorts are trousers which end at the knee or higher. On the beach, swimming shorts or trunks are usually worn by men, and bathing costumes (all in ones) or bikinis (two piece) are worn more usually by women.

The terms skirts and dresses can cause confusion. A skirt starts at the waist, while a dress is full length.

Sometimes tights (all in one) or stockings (separate for each leg) can be worn under skirts and dresses.


Footwear

There are many styles of shoe; crocks, sandals, lace ups, trainers, boots, slippers. Under these people often wear socks — very short socks often worn with trainers and shorts are called trainer socks, slightly bigger are ankle socks. In the old days, shorts were worn mostly by men and boys, along with knee length socks. These are called long socks.


Underwear

Again, there are lots of names for basically the same thing. Pants is a general term for underwear in Britain (the word means trousers in the US, which can lead to some embarrassing moments.). A bra (short for brassiere, but that word is rarely used today) is a chest supporter for women.

Source: https://englishlive.ef.com/blog/english-in-the-real-world/talk-about-fashion-in-english/ by Alan Peters.
To be on trend — to be very fashionable

casual clothes - not formal

classic style — a simple, traditional style that is always fashionable

designer label — a well-known company that makes (often expensive) clothing

dressed to kill — wearing clothes that attract admirers

to dress for the occasion — to wear clothes suitable for a particular event

fashionable — in fashion

fashion house — a company that sells (usually expensive) new styles in clothes

fashion icon — a person who is famous for their sense of fashion

fashion show — an event where modals show off the latest in fashion designs

to get dressed up — to put on nice clothes, often to go out somewhere special

to go out of fashion — to not be in fashion any more

hand-me-downs — clothes that are passed down from older brothers or sisters to their younger siblings

to have an eye for (fashion) — to be a good judge of

to have a sense of style — the ability to wear clothes that look stylish
the height of fashion — very fashionable

to keep up with the latest fashion — to wear the latest fashions

to look good in — to wear something that suits you

to mix and match — to wear different styles or items of clothing that aren't part of a set outfit

must-have — something that is highly fashionable and therefore in demand

off the peg — clothing that is ready made

old fashioned — not in fashion any more

on the catwalk — the stage that modals walk along to show off the latest fashions

a slave to fashion — someone who always feel the need to wear the latest fashions

smart clothes — the kind of clothes worn for a formal event

to suit someone — to look good on someone

to take pride in one's appearance — to pay attention to how one looks

timeless — something that doesn't go out of fashion

vintage clothes — clothes from an earlier period

well-dressed — to be dressed attractively.
1.2 Complete the sentences with words and phrases from your topical vocabulary list.
Check yourself by the test
Start test
I've bought a nice underwear set recently-pants and a _______.
Next
Check
Get the result
iPod quickly established itself as a ________ device.
Next
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Get the result
I've always ______________- and always liked to put colors and different patterns together," the famous clothes designer Mr. Freeman said.
Next
Check
Get the result
I think that the classic black dress is a ______________ item and will never go out of fashion.
Next
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Get the result
I need to know if there is a swimming pool at the hotel, as I sould pack a ____________-to bathe there.
Next
Check
Get the result
I was invited to the cocktail party in a fashionable club, so I really had to dress_________.
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Get the result
____________ is a cotton casual pullover, often with a picture or logo on it.
Next
Check
Get the result
Your new dress really___________ you, it's your style and the colour is very becoming.
Next
Check
Get the result
For the formal job interview you should wear really________ clothes.
Next
Check
Get the result
I've got a model friend, most of her life now she spends on the ___________.
Next
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Get the result
Look through
the material again, please.
Restart
Try better, please
Restart
Not bad;)
Restart
Goooood)))
Restart
It`s awesome!
Restart
1.3 Use the vocabulary from above and describe the outlook of people in the pictures. Add your own words for clothes items and accessories, if needed. Send me a mail.
Left
Right
2. Reading
2.1 Read the text about fashion trends and fill in the gaps with the paragraphs below.
A. While a great deal of looks sent down the runway go into mass production, Fashion Week shows also feature many pieces that are considered to be couture - something that is made to fit only one person's body.
B. After the first year, the hippie look emerged and became very strong, as designer began using it an inspiration for their upcoming collections and it has rolled into being very dominant and lasting season after season.
C. Fans look to them to see how to wear garments, what silhouettes are popular, what is the newest 'it' handbag and more. They are a source of trend setting information that people admire and turn to for inspiration and advice.
D. Once fashion bloggers get these designer garments in their hands, they set trends by styling the garments various ways, photographing themselves and sharing the images - and their thoughts - with their very large audiences.Fashion bloggers are highly influential in their niche areas. While people watch celebrities just because they like to, people watch fashion bloggers as a way to go directly to the source of how a trend is made so they are able to be aware from the very beginning.
E.Whenever people — including designers, fashion lovers, bloggers and magazine editors-in-chief — look out of their geographic area to trend-source, they often reach towards these highly fashionable cities looking for a unique newness. Trends from around the world show fashion through a different set of eyes and enable fashion lovers to bring something new into their world.
How Do Fashion Trends Start?
In decades' past fashion trends typically were started and evolved strictly through the method of fashion house to magazine to consumer — and it stayed like this for a very long time. In our current Internet obsessed world — where adults in the U.S. spend an average of 11 hours per day with digital media — things have changed.

Five Ways Fashion Trends Begin

While traditional fashion houses still have an impact on the way that "Futuristic Fashion Trends" fashion trends emerge, it's not just those sources that play a role in popular fashion trends anymore. Fashion trends now start and evolve through five key ways: from the runway, from street style, through celebrities, through fashion bloggers, and through the different fashion capitals of the world.

1. Runway Trends

Many of today's current trends are certainly inspired by the looks that designers send down the runways each season during Fashion Week events in New York, Milan and Paris. Fashion lovers wait in anticipation every season to see what has transpired in the minds of the designers that they love over the past months.

Trends start from the runway simply because runway looks are moments created by fashion designers that are purely fantastical! A.________________________. These are the pieces that people wait in anticipation for because they are typically over-the-top designs that look as if they came from a dream. These are the pieces that viewers store in their memories and start modeling their wardrobes after.

2. Street Style

The term 'street style' essentially refers to everyday looks that can be seen on the streets. These are the looks that people wear in their everyday life that make an impact on those who pass them by — and become inspired by them! Overall, 'street style' is a newer term in the world of fashion, but it shows how much of an impact that anyone can play in the way that fashion is perceived and trends are set!

People are easily inspired by street style for two main reasons:

The looks are typically easier to recreate.

People are inclined to follow the trends of an 'everyday person' because they believe these trends are something they can pull off themselves.

Examples of trends that began with street style include: Colorful furs — Street style trend setters and designers alike made colorful fur a popular trend. One of the big trends for fall fashion began with Natalie Joos, as her collection sports the colorful fur street style trend in a more muted tone. As fall fashion is starting to hit stores, this trend is making a big splash using very brilliant royal blues and even bright orange!

Coachella hippie look — The music festival Coachella launched in 2007 and became a Mecca for people to watch and capture street style.
B. __________________

3. Celebrities

There is no question about i t- celebrities are one of the biggest driving forces in trend creation! The public covets celebrities and follows their every move, hanging on to their every word. The fact that celebrities are highly influential is the very reason why huge companies turn to them to be spokespeople for their brands and products.

Due to their huge fan base, celebrities can have a bigger reach than the latest fashion magazine. Eyes are always on them and their fans often copy what they do. Many celebrities have become known as trend setters and style icons over the years such as Maggie Gyllenhaal and Sarah Jessica Parker, who have an eye for fashion. C. __________________

Examples of trends inspired by celebrities include: Manolo Blahnik stilettos — Yes, Manolo Blahnik shoes are impeccably-designed in every way, but they really weren't put on the map until they made their big debut on Sex and the City and Sarah Jessica Parker incorporated them into her real life wardrobe. After this, it became such a trend to own a pair of these coveted shoes!

Hobo trend — You could call the hobo trend a modern-day grunge look, but no matter what name tag you place on it, the trend was clearly started by the Olsen twins! Mary Kate and Ashley them began rocking this look anytime they were out in public and became widely known by the press as "bag ladies." Their fans loved it and began copying this look!

4. Fashion Bloggers

Over the years, fashion bloggers have proven to the masses that they have great taste and are creating trends in the fashion world — not following them! Designers often turn to fashion bloggers — just as they turn to celebrities — to wear and help promote their products, because they are well aware of their influence. D. __________________— 

Fashion bloggers offer a fresh perspective on the fashion industry and their readers adore and respect that.

Military style — World known fashion blogger Chiara Ferragni set the tone with the popular military style that has trickled down and inspired many designers worldwide. She used details such as patched and the beret hat to complete her look and help start a major trend!

Shoe trends — Fashion blogger Peace Love Shea inspired her huge audience and designers alike with her daily style posts on her blog and through her Instagram feed. She has made such a huge impact in the design world that shoe company Steve Madden approached her to partner in a shoe collection, inspired by her style!

5. Fashion Capitals of the World

Because fashion and trends are different all over the world, people often look to see what happening in the fashion capitals of the world — New York City, Paris, Milan and London — to see what people are wearing and adopt those trends to fit into their lives. E.__________________ Dr. Martens — Affectionately referred to as 'Doc Martens', this shoe company started in Britain in 1960, originally to provide functionality to the wearer. They were quickly adopted by the youth of London's High Street and became a hallmark of youth culture. Popularized worldwide by Pete Townshend of The Who, these shoes found their way over to the U.S. and became a huge part of the rebellious grunge era fashion scene.

Abridged from: https://womens-fashion.lovetoknow.com/womens-fashion-history/how-do-fashion-trends-start
Answer key
1.B

2.D

3.A

4.E

5.C
Well, that's all for now. I'm looking forward to meeting you at our face-to face class on Saturday and keeping a discussion about what is on and what is out and what makes things pass by so quickly.
Have you completed the lesson?
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